AN ASSESSMENT OF CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON AGRICUTURE AND LIVELIHOOD OF FARMERS: A CASE STUDY OF SIRIDIBAS VDC, MANASLU CONSERVATION AREA, GORKHA
Farming in hill and mountain is subsistence type. This research and intends to assess the impact of climate change in agriculture and livelihood of MCA. FGD, KII, field observation methods was used for information collection, cross validation and verification with the secondary source of information. Household survey was done with pre-structured questionnaire. FGD was done between local Mothers Group (ama samuha) and Farmer‟s group. KII was done personally with JTA, VDC secretary, president of Mother‟s group and some modal farmers. The research is perception based verified by data. Perception was sorted out age wise so as to know age wise knowledge in climate and agriculture. This study reveals mean temperature, mean minimum temperature and mean maximum temperature is increasing at the rate of 0.05ºC/yr, 0.96ºC/yr and 0.002ºC/yr respectively. Also, mean annual rainfall is increasing at rate of 0.995mm/ year where pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon is increasing at rate of 0.714, 2.88 and 0.293mm/yr respectively while winter monsoon is decreasing at rate of 0.236mm/yr. Though change in cropping season is unaltered there regarding varying climate, the harvesting period has decreased in maize, wheat, barley due to the increased temperature. 32-year crop production data of Gorkha district shows productivity of maize, wheat, and millet has increased at overall trend but at last few years to a decade, this productivity have decreased. This decreased productivity may be because of untimely rainfall in unnecessary amount. Untimely rainfall during pollination, flowering and increased temperature during grain filling with decreased rainfall causing dry spell have negative effects in crops yield. Climatic hazards like water logging are caused due to intense rainfall during Jestha/Ashad affecting summer crops. Also, increased temperature with less or no rainfall in Falgun-Baisakh caused dry spell problem affecting summer crops. Intense rainfall may be responsible landslides ultimately affecting agriculture production. External factors like government policy of food supply through its depot might have caused to divert people profession of farming to non-farming business contributing to decrease crop production. People with lesser hope in subsistence farming have changed their livelihood from alternate source like going abroad for earning. Thus, along with climate change impacts on farming, food distribution policy and changed livelihood source has affected the farming side by side.