Nepal is one of the lowest energy consuming countries in the world. More than 85 percent of its total energy comes from traditional biomass energy such as forests, agricultural residues and by-products from crops. Due to increasing per capita energy consumption, natural resources are being depleted with heavy emission of GHGs in the atmosphere which is supposed to be the cause of global climate change.
The rivers and streams of Himalayan region are most vulnerable to climate change and are likely to affect all freshwater ecosystems and their fauna. Benthic macroinvertebrates are sensitive to changes in temperature, precipitation, and the associated flow regimes, which make them particularly responsive to the effects of climate change.
The upper species limit shift of Abies spectabilis and its tree line dynamics under climatic stress was studied in A. spectabilis forest of Lho village in Manaslu Conservation Area, central Nepal. The census of A. spectabilis was carried by belt transect laid covering tree line as well as tree species limit and the sample belt was located by purposive sampling method. Total number of tree individuals, basal diameter, diameter at breast height (DBH), and crown diameter, number of seedlings and saplings of A. spectabilis were recorded.